Murray's filing system (OUP Museum)
Enter Keywords:
Thursday, 31 January 2013
Home arrow Types of source arrow 18th-century arrow Jean Adam arrow Unrecorded arrow Early 18c gap
Early 18c gap
Examples from Adam's work which plug the OED gap in early-eighteenth-century quotations: Adam Table 4b

OED dates
Fills early eighteenth-century gap (number of years between existing OED quotations)
exasperate, ppl. adj.'Here did exasp'rat sorrow break his Chains' (p. 128)1601, 1606, 1622, 1795, 1854, 1856
This is OED1/2 sense 2. The distribution of quotations makes it look as if the term was unused over a significant number of years, which seems unlikely.
carnal'Hydra like, when one [sin] is cut, Afresh will seven grow: And still while carnal Motives lead, The Matter will go so' (p. 15)1483, c1510, 1611, 1781, 1839
Adam's use comes under OED1/2 sense 4, 'Not spiritual, in a negative sense; material, temporal, secular', for which there are no quotations between 1611 (Bible) and 1781 (Gibbon). OED's eighteenth-century evidence for the adjective is under-supplied for other senses too.
oarless'Only just Noah built himself an Ark, / To save his Race, and Helmless, Oarless, Bark' (p. 61)1605, 1771, 1813, 1852...
OED3 (draft entry March 2004) gives the impression that oarless was unused over most of the seventeenth century and the eighteenth century up to 1771; Adam's evidence rectifies this (NB OED3 did catch Adam's similar use of pilotless.
benefactor'This harmony was noble and divine: / All joyed to see their benefactor [the God of Day] shine' (p. 142)1532, 1605, 1769, 1848
OED1/2 defines s.v. sense 1: 'One who renders aid or kindly service to others, a friendly helper; one who advances the interests of a cause or institution, a patron.' It is hard to imagine that there are not lots of other examples available to cover the big gap 1605-1769.
anticipate'Thou sweet anticipating Grace, Thou makes us ere our Time possess' (p. 19)1524, 1623, 1783 (Cowper)
OED1/2 sense 1: 'To seize or take possession of beforehand'.
interchange, n.'With thee the mutual Interchange of Thought / Is not the least of Blessings here below' (p. 144)...1611, 1632, 1791, 1804, 1885
OED1/2 defines sense 1a as 'The act of exchanging reciprocally; giving and receiving with reciprocity; reciprocal exchange (of commodities, courtesies, ideas, etc.) between two persons or parties'; Adam's use - surely not unusual - fills a big gap.
animated'What Way was Man created at the first? / Is he like Beasts, but animated Dust? (p. 84)1534, 1615, 1774, 1784, 1858
This is OED1/2 1a: 'Endowed with life; living, alive'; OED's eighteenth-century quotations are from Goldsmith (1774) and Cowper (1784).
overlook'And shall his Pow'r be overlookt / Who makes the Mountains melt?' (p. 29)...1534, 1646, 1794
This looks like OED1/2 sense 2: 'trans. fig. To look down on; to despise; to treat with contempt, to slight', which must be the right one here. Once again, Adam supplies a useful interim quotation.
inanimate, a.'Shall Nature's Works inanimate / Declare the Power of God?' (p. 26)1563-87, 1643, 1784 (Cowper), 1828, 1866, 1880
This is OED1/2 sense 1: 'Not animated or alive; destitute of life, lifeless; spec. not endowed with animal life, as in inanimate nature, that part of nature which is without sensation, i.e. all outside the animal world'. Adam's example is again useful evidence for interim use between 1643 and 1784.
awful'Surpriz'd was I too see so fair a Form [...] I at an awfull Distance stood amaz'd' (p. 143)1593, 1607, 1641, 1781, 1846, 1879
OED1/2 defines sense 6 as 'Profoundly respectful or reverential'; as frequently, the early eighteenth century is under-represented in the quotations.
aliment'My Surety came to satisfy the Law; / The mighty Sum for me he frankly pay'd, / And in my Hand the free Discharge he laid. / Nor is a free Discharge half of my Gains, / For yet a constant Aliment remains' (p. 10)1640-1, 1780
The context (Surety, Law, Discharge) makes it clear that Adam is using legal language figuratively, as in a long tradition of literary and theological commentary on Christ's sacrifice for man (her obvious immediate model is Milton). OED1/2 treats this sense s.v. 3: 'Sc. Law and gen. Provision for the maintenance of any one, called in Eng. Law ALIMONY; an allowance, annuity or pension'. Adam's use fills the OED gap in documentation, and just as interestingly provides a figurative example of the term, showing that usage was not confined to legal contexts (as in the existing OED quotations).
rural'Lord Jehovah is my Swain [...] His rural weeds adorn me more / Than Crowns of shining Gold' (p. 30); 'from the Rural to the Royal Tent / Yet unabash'd the blooming Shepherd [David] went' (p. 67)1513, 1617, 1634 (Milton), 1770 (Goldsmith), 1784 (Cowper), 1874 (G. Eliot)
This must be OED1/2 3a: 'Of or pertaining to, characteristic of, peasants or country-folk; rustic'. Given that Milton used the word several times there are likely to be other late-seventeenth-century/early-eighteenth-century examples available.
maze'through this Maze of Matter lead my Way' (p. 1); cf. 'No Strand or Stream in all the Maze of Life. / But he could Wade or Swim with me his Wife' (p. 57), and 'thy son [...] / Had trac'd thee almost thro' the Maze of Life' (p. 58)...1605, 1615, 1646, 1781, 1837, 1849, 1872...
A second eighteenth-century example of OED3 sense 4b (for maze, n.1): 'In extended use: a complex network of paths or streets; a bewildering mass of things (material or immaterial), in which the individual components are difficult to separate or make out' (draft entry December 2008). This sense is evidenced by four sixteenth-century, three seventeenth-century, one (late) eighteenth-century, three nineteenth-century and three twentieth-century quotations, giving the impression that it was less current, for whatever reason, in the early eighteenth century. This seems unlikely and Adam's examples help to redress the balance. ECCO searches indicate that the phrase 'Maze of Life' was used quite frequently in eighteenth-century texts.
subtle'A little lower [than the heavens] dwells the subtile Air' (and cf. 'thro' suttle Air' a few lines later) (p. 5)...1660, 1665, 1799, 1842, 1863, 1891
A second eighteenth-century instance of OED1/2 sense 1: 'Of thin consistency, tenuous; not dense, rarefied; hence, penetrating, pervasive or elusive by reason of tenuity (now chiefly of odours)'. Adam's example is a useful intermediate one between 1665 (Dryden) and 1799 (Medical Journal) and corrects the impression the word was less used in the eighteenth century than in the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries.
unwrinkled'The richest, wisest, fairest, Maid, be thine, / And live unwrinkled by the Course of Time' (p. 133)1576, 1592, 1643, a1649, 1784, 1801, 1864...
The current OED record suggests the early eighteenth century (and late seventeenth century) have no record of this word, which seems unlikely.
mark, n.1'In thee's the Mark, in whom all Arrows meet' (p. 24)...1660, 1792, a1798...
This must be OED3 sense 23a (draft revision December 2008): 'A target, butt, or other object set up to be aimed at with a missile or projectile. Hence also: a person or animal targeted by an archer, spear-thrower, etc. Also in fig. context', illustrated from the thirteenth century on.
spot, n.1'Although their Intrest it secures, / And frees their Fame from Spots' (p. 28)...1639, 1650, 1781, 1844
OED1/2 sense 1: 'fig. a. A moral stain, blot, or blemish; a stigma or disgrace'.
deformity'Deformity is oft oblidg'd to dress' (p. 25)...1634, 1762-71, 1805
OED1/2 sense 1, 'The quality or condition of being marred or disfigured in appearance; disfigurement; unsightliness, ugliness.'
sparing'The Robe of Cruel Saul his Foe he cut / When he as easily might reach'd his Throat. / Thus he convinc'd him by a sparing Hand, / How far he was from Foe, how near a Friend' (p. 66)...1605, a1626, 1658-9, 1786 (Burns)
This is OED1/2 sense 4: 'Forbearing; merciful, considerate', illustrated with quotations dated fourteenth century, 1605, a1626, 1658-9, then (finally) 1786 (Burns). Adam's example evens out the quotation distribution.
hollow'Abel's approv'd, because in Heart sincere, / And hollow Cain frown'd off with Threats severe' (p. 60)...1593, 1593, 1655, 1769, 1781, 1832...
This is OED1/2 sense 5: 'fig. Of persons and things: Wanting soundness, solidity, or substance; empty, vain; not answering inwardly to outward appearance; insincere, false.' Adam fills the early eighteenth-century gap.
covenant'The Cov'nant he [the Lord] hath made with me, / For ever shall endure' (p. 32; cf. 'This Cov'nant he [God] confirmed by an Oath', p. 62; 'for a Memorial of his Covenant', p. 63)...1611, 1667, 1779, 1818, 1881
This must be OED1 sense 7: 'Scripture. Applied esp. to an engagement entered into by the Divine Being with some other being or persons', for which there are two fourteenth-century, one sixteenth-century, two seventeenth-century, one eighteenth-century, and two nineteenth-century quotations. So Adam's examples are useful again - and again, surely easily replicable.
organ, n.1'What tho' the Feind his Organ change, / The Spirit's still the same: / If now he took a Serpent's Form, / His Fraud would be too plain' (p. 13)...1548, 1568, 1602, 1675, 1785, 1849, 1888, 1920, 1989
This is OED3 sense 5a: 'A means of action or operation, an instrument; (now) esp. a person, body of people, or thing by which some purpose is carried out or some function is performed' (draft revision June 2009). Adam's example corrects the impression given by the distribution of OED quotations that the word was less used in the eighteenth century than in the sixteenth, seventeenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries.
spark, n.1'he had not a Spark of Nature left' (p. 60)...1601, 1697, a1770, 1775...
OED1/2 n.1 2a: 'A small trace, indication, or portion of some quality, feeling, sentiment, etc., in some way comparable to a spark, esp. in respect of its latent possibilities.' The OED record makes it look as if the early eighteenth century lacks evidence for this usage - but it does not.
jovial'upon the jovial Plain' (p. 38)...1685, 1789...
OED1/2 sense 6: 'Characterized by hearty mirth, humour, or good fellowship; merry, jolly; convivial', illustrated with one sixteenth-century, three seventeenth-century, one eighteenth-century, and two nineteenth-century quotations. A gap between Dryden 1685 and W. Buchan 1789. So Adam's example is useful here.
requisite'all that Men think requisite / For such a mighty one' (p. 43)1472-3, 1522, 1592, 1611, 1659, 1761, 1878
Another example of an unremarkable usage which is not given illustration from the eighteenth century that is comparable with that from the seventeenth and nineteenth. Adam's example is useful here (and another quotation from the early nineteenth century would be useful too).
blooming'from the Rural to the Royal Tent / Yet unabash'd the blooming Shepherd [David] went' (p. 71)1675, 1774, 1855
This is OED1/2 sense 2a fig.: 'In the bloom of health and beauty, in the prime of youth; flourishing', illustrated from Dryden Blacklock and Macaulay. Adam fills early the eighteenth-century gap - and supplies a further example for sparsely illustrated sense.
staff, n.1'Thou art the Staff on which we lean' (p. 19)OE and ME quotations to 1377, no fifteenth-century quotations, then three sixteenth-century ones ending with 1590, then 1666, 1760-62, 1857 (followed by 1860, 1803 and 1907)
This unexceptional usage is OED1/2 sense 1: '1. a. A stick carried in the hand as an aid in walking or climbing. Now chiefly literary (e.g. in reference to 'pilgrims')'. Usage of this word is unlikely to have been as chronologically uneven as OED's existing quotations imply, and Adam's 1734 example is a useful interim attestation.
compendious'Two vast compendious Books to me were giv'n' (p. 82)...1605, 1667, 1774, 1842
OED1/2 sense 1: 'Containing the substance within small compass, concise, succinct, summary; comprehensive though brief; esp. of literary works; also of their authors.' Not a problematic usage in any way, but while there are three fifteenth-century, two sixteenth-century, and two seventeenth-century quotations, there is only one eighteenth-century (and, unusually, only one nineteenth-century).
jarring'These jarring Intrests always will contend' (p. 60)1661, 1762, 1849
OED1/2 sense 3: 'Discordant, conflicting, clashing', sparsely attested: three quotations in all. So Adam's example useful.
dire'What dire Presumption can inspire such Rage, / As with Omnipotence a War to wage!' (p. 54)1605, 1667, 1681, 1768, a1774, 1784, 1853, 1868
This is OED1/2's first listed adjectival sense, in a definition from Johnson's Dictionary: '"Dreadful, dismal, mournful, horrible, terrible, evil in a great degree" (J.).' As often, the first half of the eighteenth century is left unillustrated, and the three bunched quotations from the second half of the century make it look as if the word was more current then than previously. Almost certainly this is not the case. Adam's example would correct that impression.
equity'Thou art not yet above the sky / Where Equity prevails' (p. 45)1611, 1660, 1673, 1759,1832, 1870
This is the general sense of equity (i.e. not the specialised use in jurisprudence), viz. OED1/2 sense 1: 'The quality of being equal or fair; fairness, impartiality; evenhanded dealing.' Again, an eighteenth-century dip in OED's quotation distribution which Adam's example helps correct.
plank'Thou art the Plank on which we swim' (p. 19)...1690, a1775, 1787...
This answers precisely to the definition for OED3 sense 1c (draft revision June 2009): 'fig. or in figurative context, chiefly with reference to the plank to which a shipwrecked person clings in order to avoid drowning'. There are four seventeenth-century quotations up to 1690, then a gap till a1775 and 1787 - so Adam's example is useful for attesting usage in the early eighteenth century.
spare, v.1'See! how he kills the Foe, and spares the Man' (p. 66)...a1628, 1697, 1780 (Cowper), 1825, 1891
This is an example of OED1/2 sense 1a trans.: 'To leave (a person) unhurt, unharmed, or uninjured; to refrain from inflicting injury or punishment upon; to allow to escape, go free, or live. Usually with personal subject', illustrated from 825 on with two seventeenth-century, one eighteenth-century, and two nineteenth-century quotations.
governess'Here uncorrupted lives the Governess, / Inspir'd as by a Mother's Tenderness, / Yet her Authority is ne'er the less' (p. 114)1587, 1615, 1653, 1688, 1771
OED1/2 differentiates from current sense (sense 2b) and defines '2. a. A woman who has charge or control of a person, esp. of a young one. Obs.'
unconfounded'Our GOD is one united Trinity [...] Unseparate, unconfounded ever more' (p. 83)1577, 1612, 1676, 1758, 1836, 1856
OED defines by cross-referring to un-, prefix1 sense 8 and, as often, under-documents the early eighteenth century (and there is one eighteenth-century quotation versus two seventeenth-century and two nineteenth-century).
calling, vbl. n.'For I [God] have furnish'd every human Kind / With lawfull Callings, more or less refin'd / By which they may obtain the Means of Life' (p. 95)...1642, 1687, 1768-78, 1841-4, 1848, 1872
This is OED1/2 sense 11a: 'Ordinary occupation, means by which livelihood is earned, business, trade', which lacks an early eighteenth-century example (contrast the two seventeenth-century and three nineteenth-century quotations). The entry explains that the usage is etymologised with reference to '1 Cor. vii. 20, Gr., L. vocatione, where it stands for the condition or position in which one was when called to salvation', and that it is 'often mixed up with sense 9 ["The summons, invitation, or impulse of God to salvation or to his service"], as if it meant the estate in life to which God has called a man.' Adam's example makes this supposed etymology very clear.
leafless'View the Leafless, Flowerless Tree' (p. 22)1697, 1776-97, plus four nineteenth-century quotations
ECCO evidence suggests there are many other early eighteenth-century examples of this word; the present run of OED1/2 evidence suggests that it suddenly came back into use at the end of the eighteenth century after a period of remission.
impartial'Then to th'impartial Mirrour straight I flew' (p. 9); 'The Impartial Law of God in Nature' (poem title, p. 25)1593, 1601, 1693, 1769, 1838
OED1/2 sense 1 ('Not partial [...] unprejudiced, unbiased, fair, just'). The term is sparsely illustrated in OED.
tackling'With pure Desires her silken Sails were fill'd, / And from the Cable to the smallest Cord, / Her Tacklings all were of unspotted Love' (p. 157)...1529, c1615, 1676, 1696, 1769
OED1/2 sense 1b. The interest here is that the last quotation (1769), from a Dictionary of Marine Terms (Falconer), refers to 'the obsolete word Tackling, which is now entirely disused by our mariners'. Adam's example shows that it was in use, figuratively at any rate, as late as 1734 (i.e. well after the date of the previous quotation, 1696).
gourmandize'Old Saturn gormandizes on his Son; / Sin gormandizes upon Sin' (p. 3)...1628, 1693, 1768-74, 1802, 1853
This is OED1/2 sense 1, intr.: 'To eat like a glutton; to feed voraciously'. OED's distribution of quotations indicates the verb was used less often in the eighteenth century than in the nineteenth or seventeenth century, which is unlikely to be the case.
oral'The Oral Law he plac'd in Noah's Hand, / The most of which firm to this Day doth stand' (p. 63)1657, c1680, 1751 (Johnson), 1874...
This must be OED3 sense 2b (draft revision September 2009): 'Of disputes, negotiations, agreements, contracts, etc.: conducted by the means of the spoken word; transacted by word of mouth; communicated in speech; spoken, verbal.' The term is sparsely evidenced; Adam's example is a good illustration of the word's use and meaning and shows the continued use of the sense in the first half of the eighteenth century.
remains'There ly interr'd the black Remains of Sin' (p. 4)1700 (Dryden), a1771 (Gray), 1797 (Mrs Radcliffe), 1818 (Shelley), 1851 (Macaulay)
OED1/2 sense 7b: 'That which is left of a person when life is extinct; the (dead) body, corpse'. Adam's 1734 example is a useful interim one, showing that the first recorded example for this term, from Dryden (1700), is not an outlier, and also providing evidence that the term is naturalised (Dryden's example is a translation from Ovid and Gray's a translation from Dante).
Last Updated ( Wednesday, 23 December 2009 )
< Previous   Next >

Built with Mambo. Any comments or feedback are welcome.
All responsibility for views and data published on this site is that of the author, Charlotte Brewer.
Copyright © 2005-13 Charlotte Brewer. All rights reserved.